Education

The Impacts of Violence on Education in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2014
Document Publisher/Creator
Augustino Ting Mayai & Hollyn Hammond
Institution/organisation
The Sudd Institute
Topic
NGO associated?
Summary
Basic education is a fundamental economic necessity, but circumstances such as armed violence often make its effective provision quite grim. This is particularly pertinent in South Sudan where the delivery of social services has been greatly undermined by a recent violence. This policy brief analyzes the impacts of South Sudan’s ongoing violence on education in the three states of Upper Nile. Our findings indicate that the war has led to pronounced reductions in educational activities and resources in the area, with school closure and mass outmigration as a result. We recommend to both the government and the humanitarian community to pay considerable attention to the educational priorities of the communities in question, paying teachers regularly, and supplying necessary inputs for continued learning in the area. Continued investments in education, even in the time of mass violence, reduce future social injustice and set stage for needed stability in the country.
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Effectiveness of minimum quality standards for primary education in low and lower middle-income countries

Year of Publication
2019
Document Publisher/Creator
Hassan Ahmed
Institution/organisation
K4D (Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development)
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/14413
Summary
Minimum quality standards for education are common in low and lower middle-income countries. However, the scope and use of these standards are determined by the country’s level of development. Therefore, some countries have advanced standards, whilst others have simple tools and frameworks to guide the quality of their basic education.
Minimum standards are used to monitor, evaluate and inspect the quality of education provision. As such they can also improve accountability in education. However, the availability of minimum quality education frameworks and tools in a country does not always mean they are effective as the availability of both technical and financial resources affects implementation.
Overall, minimum standards of basic education contribute to different aspects of quality education. For example, compliance to school infrastructure and environment might promote the safety, health and general well-being of the learners but if the standards of the teacher quality and teaching learning resources are not met then good students’ learning outcomes may not be achieved. Generally, there is an agreement and assumption that the use of minimum standards supports the harmonisation of education provisions and can contribute to quality education.
Date of Publication
08/09/2020

Evidence on Efforts to Mitigate the Negative Educational Impact of Past Disease Outbreaks

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Joe Hallgarten
Institution/organisation
K4D (Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development)
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/15202
Summary
This rapid review focusses on efforts to mitigate the educational impact of previous disease outbreaks, concentrating on school-age learners. It follows two companion papers that reviewed broader secondary effects and attempts to mitigate them (Rohwerder, 2020; Kelly, 2020). It aims to inform the education sector’s responses to the COVID-19 crisis, although there are important differences between previous disease outbreaks and the COVID-19 situation. For instance, unlike Ebola, transmission of COVID-19 is asymptomatic, and the outbreak is global. This review finds a limited range of quantitative evidence on the educational impact of disease outbreaks, and minimal evidence on mitigation measures or their impact. Although several ‘lessons learned’ documents include guidelines and recommendations (and now complemented by many education-focused COVID-responsive blogs), this review finds that these are rarely based on evidence of impact of particular interventions, or on evidence of the impact of different approaches to action, co-ordinations, funding or prioritisation. The review found four particular evidence gaps: First, how distance learning materials can support learners who do not have access to family members with the skills or time to help them. Second, a gap in the use of screen or internet-enabled technologies to support alternative education. Third (and related), a gap in remote teacher training and development during school closures. Finally, the review analysed gender and equity issues but did not find any literature that explored disability. The education in emergencies literature has an emerging evidence base across all four themes within refugee education contexts, but has not yet learnt from or applied this evidence to disease outbreak situations.
Date of Publication
15/09/2020

The Effectiveness of Nutrition Education for Care Takers at Al-Sabah Children Hospital in Patient Therapeutic Feeding Center, Juba South Sudan

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Alumai J. Bosco, Gloria Kirungi and Et al
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/the-effectiveness-of-nutrition-education-for-care-takers-at-al-sabah-children-hospital-in-patient-therapeutic-feeding-center-juba-south-sudan/
Summary
Background: A key part of treating and preventing malnutrition is the provision of effective nutrition education to the clients and caretakers so that they can self-manage their nutrition needs even after discharge from the hospital. For effective nutrition education,three factors are paramount; The successful transfer of knowledge and skills, client motivation to act on theacquired skills and knowledge and ensuring that the patient is able to understand and put to practice the educational messages given.

Methods: The study used cross sectional design with mixed method of data collection that involved 83 caretakers of admitted SAM children at Al-Sabah children hospital ITC, Sample size was determined using Cochran 1975, interviewer administered questionnaires and focus group discussion guide were the tools used in collecting data. Data set was generated using EPI info andanalyzed using SPSS version 21, the analyzed descriptive data was triangulated with the qualitative data collected using FGD.

Results: The majority of the caretakers were female 78 (94%) of which 68 (81.9%) were mothers to the children that were admitted. Only 8 (9.6%) of the respondents were found to have attained effective nutrition education and majority of the respondents were found not to be recalling the information they were given during the education session.Conclusion: As per the guidelinesadaptedby the ministry of health republic of South Sudan, the nutrition education sessions conducted was found not be effective as most of the clients could not even recall the information given.
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Date of Publication
09/09/2020

COVID-19 AFTERSHOCKS: ACCESS DENIED TEENAGE PREGNANCY THREATENS TO BLOCK A MILLION GIRLS ACROSS SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA FROM RETURNING TO SCHOOL

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
World Vision International
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.wvi.org/sites/default/files/2020-08/2020-08-21-%20Aftershocks%20Education%20final2_3.pdf
Summary
The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked unprecedented havoc on children, families and communities around the globe, disrupting vital services and putting millions of lives at risk. Since March, attempts to avert the global health crisis have seen nationwide school closures in 194 countries, affecting nearly 1.6 billion learners – over 90 per cent of the world’s school-going population.

For the most vulnerable children, especially girls, accessing education and staying in school is hard enough. The pandemic has caused additional, unanticipated disruption, and the likelihood of vulnerable children being able to continue their education has plummeted. Prior to the COVID-19 crisis, 258 million children and youth of primary and secondary school age were already failing to access education. On top of that, the United Nations now estimates that nearly 11 million primary and secondary school learners worldwide – 5.2 million of whom are girls – are at risk of not returning to education following school closures due to COVID-19.

This report spotlights one particular vulnerability that is known to be exacerbated by school closures in times of crisis and risks the continued education of vulnerable children: teenage pregnancy. School closures during crises can result in girls spending more time with men and boys than they would were they to be in school, leading to greater likelihood of engagement in risky sexual behaviour and increased risk of sexual violence and exploitation. Teenage pregnancy is further linked to lack of sexual and reproductive health education and services, child marriage, health and well-being risks, and increased poverty and insecurity. Complications from teenage pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death of girls aged 15 to 19 years worldwide.

Sub-Saharan Africa is home to more out-of -school children than any other region in the world. It also has the highest teenage pregnancy rates globally, making the region uniquely confronted by how to address and accommodate pregnancies and young mothers in school. Policies range across the region –from outright expulsion of pregnant girls to strategies that support the continued education of adolescent mothers – yet social norms, practices and other barriers still typically result in pregnancy being the end to one’s education. World Vision estimates that as many as one million girls across sub-Saharan Africa may be blocked from returning to school due to pregnancy during COVID-19 school closures. With school closures related to COVID-19 threatening to lead to an increase in teenage pregnancy, sub-Saharan Africa is poised for a further crisis in girls’ education unless governments and partners act now.
Date of Publication
16/09/2020

WAR AND SCHOOLING IN SOUTH SUDAN, 2013-2016

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Augustino Ting Mayai
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
http://hdl.handle.net/2451/61489
Summary
South Sudan was embroiled in a civil war from mid-December 2013 to mid-
September 2018. Nearly 400,000 people died, and several million were displaced.
The economy nearly collapsed as the nation’s output was severely reduced, causing
inflation to soar. While prior research on the immediate humanitarian crisis in
South Sudan has focused on forced displacement and food insecurity, there is little
information available about the long-term impact the war had on human capital
accumulation in this context. This analysis exploits spatial variation in exposure
to violence to estimate the causal impact of the recent civil war on primary school
enrollment as a proxy for measuring human capital accumulation. Results based
on the difference-in-differences methodology indicate a statistically significant
relationship between school enrollment and the war. The study shows that schools
located in the South Sudanese war zones lost 85 children per year on average, or
18.5 percent of total enrollment. The diminishing trends in girls’ enrollment are
unrelated to the war, which is not surprising; social barriers, including gendered
domestic roles, early marriage, and out-of-wedlock pregnancies, have long impeded
female educational opportunities in South Sudan. These effects are robust to a
number of specifications, including holding constant school-level fixed effects and
adjusting for the standard errors. The article presents important policy implications
for education and the labor market, both locally and internationally.
Date of Publication
Tue, 01/09/2020

Coming together for Refugee Education

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.unhcr.org/5f4f9a2b4
Summary
Anyone looking for inspirational examples of dedication, perseverance, resilience and strength of character should look no further than the students and teachers featured in this year’s report on refugees and education.
From Ecuador to Jordan, from Iran to Ethiopia, these young refugees and the adults who support them realize how much living a life in dignity and preparing for solutions depend on access to full and formal quality education.
The gap between refugees and their peers is still wide, especially at the higher levels of education. Given the continued rise in the overall number of the world’s forcibly displaced, keeping education enrollment rates steady is no small feat.
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Date of Publication
10/09/2020