Health

Remediating South Sudan’s War-induced Petroleum Environmental Damage: Environmental baseline Conditions and Current Impacts

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Nhial Tiitmamer
Institution/organisation
The Sudd Institute
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.suddinstitute.org/publications/show/5efb3a900bfb7
Summary
This paper reviews the existing literature to determine the adequacy of evidence and extent
of the environmental impacts in the oil producing areas in South Sudan. The following is
revealed:
o Evidence from previous studies shows that there is a serious environmental and
social disaster in the three oil producing areas, even though such evidence does not
generate enough consensus for the decision makers.
o Environmental impacts assessments (EIA) conducted before the oil operations
reveal that (1) the air in these locations was of good quality and (2) the water was
safe for both human and animal consumption, except for the pockets with high
concentration of salt in groundwater in the Um Ruwaba geological region.
o Still, many parameters of environmental quality usually recognized by World
Health Organization (WHO) have not been tested in both the EIAs and related
environmental studies.
o In summary, existing evidence links high concentrations of salt and heavy metals to
oil exploration, development and production, which are the cause of the widely
reported birth defects, miscarriages, infertility, and cancers in the affected areas.
We recommend a comprehensive, independent environmental and social assessment to
determine the extent of environmental and social impacts. Resulting insights could be used
to develop remediation measures to restore the environment and address related health
and social problems. The assessment should be carried out by a reputable firm or an
organization, which would need to be selected by the Ministry of Environment and
Forestry through a competitive bidding process. In the long term, results from this
assessment could help lay the foundation for sustainable development, provide oil
companies with new social license to operate, avert potential conflict and ecological
disasters, and aid in building a lasting peace in the country
Date of Publication
02/09/2020

Lessons for health programme delivery in fragile and conflict affected states

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Laura Bolton
Institution/organisation
K4D (Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development)
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/15391
Summary
This helpdesk report reviews the lessons learned from the delivery of health programmes in a conflict-sensitive way including in South Sudan. Recommendations on conflict sensitivity and health programming identified in this review include: coordination between governments and implementing agencies, training for healthcare staff in conflict sensitivity, health and hygiene promotion for refugees and social cohesion activities for refugees and host communities involving children.

Meanwhile, lessons for achieving health outcomes in fragile and conflict-affected states include: political commitment and government ownership, participatory decision-making, evidence-based programming and refinement, reliable and sustained funding and strengthening of community structures that provide support in health. Programming experience in fragile and conflict-affected states also provides useful tips on: capacity building, contracting out, health pool funding, labour markets, different providers and gender
Date of Publication
08/09/2020

The Effectiveness of Nutrition Education for Care Takers at Al-Sabah Children Hospital in Patient Therapeutic Feeding Center, Juba South Sudan

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Alumai J. Bosco, Gloria Kirungi and Et al
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/the-effectiveness-of-nutrition-education-for-care-takers-at-al-sabah-children-hospital-in-patient-therapeutic-feeding-center-juba-south-sudan/
Summary
Background: A key part of treating and preventing malnutrition is the provision of effective nutrition education to the clients and caretakers so that they can self-manage their nutrition needs even after discharge from the hospital. For effective nutrition education,three factors are paramount; The successful transfer of knowledge and skills, client motivation to act on theacquired skills and knowledge and ensuring that the patient is able to understand and put to practice the educational messages given.

Methods: The study used cross sectional design with mixed method of data collection that involved 83 caretakers of admitted SAM children at Al-Sabah children hospital ITC, Sample size was determined using Cochran 1975, interviewer administered questionnaires and focus group discussion guide were the tools used in collecting data. Data set was generated using EPI info andanalyzed using SPSS version 21, the analyzed descriptive data was triangulated with the qualitative data collected using FGD.

Results: The majority of the caretakers were female 78 (94%) of which 68 (81.9%) were mothers to the children that were admitted. Only 8 (9.6%) of the respondents were found to have attained effective nutrition education and majority of the respondents were found not to be recalling the information they were given during the education session.Conclusion: As per the guidelinesadaptedby the ministry of health republic of South Sudan, the nutrition education sessions conducted was found not be effective as most of the clients could not even recall the information given.
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Date of Publication
09/09/2020

Evidence on Efforts to Mitigate the Negative Educational Impact of Past Disease Outbreaks

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Joe Hallgarten
Institution/organisation
K4D (Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development)
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/15202
Summary
This rapid review focusses on efforts to mitigate the educational impact of previous disease outbreaks, concentrating on school-age learners. It follows two companion papers that reviewed broader secondary effects and attempts to mitigate them (Rohwerder, 2020; Kelly, 2020). It aims to inform the education sector’s responses to the COVID-19 crisis, although there are important differences between previous disease outbreaks and the COVID-19 situation. For instance, unlike Ebola, transmission of COVID-19 is asymptomatic, and the outbreak is global. This review finds a limited range of quantitative evidence on the educational impact of disease outbreaks, and minimal evidence on mitigation measures or their impact. Although several ‘lessons learned’ documents include guidelines and recommendations (and now complemented by many education-focused COVID-responsive blogs), this review finds that these are rarely based on evidence of impact of particular interventions, or on evidence of the impact of different approaches to action, co-ordinations, funding or prioritisation. The review found four particular evidence gaps: First, how distance learning materials can support learners who do not have access to family members with the skills or time to help them. Second, a gap in the use of screen or internet-enabled technologies to support alternative education. Third (and related), a gap in remote teacher training and development during school closures. Finally, the review analysed gender and equity issues but did not find any literature that explored disability. The education in emergencies literature has an emerging evidence base across all four themes within refugee education contexts, but has not yet learnt from or applied this evidence to disease outbreak situations.
Date of Publication
15/09/2020

Food Security and Nutrition Vulnerability and Risk Analysis in Former Warrap and Northern Bahr el Ghazal States

Year of Publication
2018
Document Publisher/Creator
Augustino T. Mayai, Zacharia D. Akol and Et al
Institution/organisation
The Sudd Institute
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.suddinstitute.org/publications/show/5ad737a42c099
Summary
The trends reported in the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) show a growing food security crisis in South Sudan, with a high proportion of people sliding into crisis and emergency food insecurity level. The underlying fears concern an emerging acute lack of food in almost all parts of the country, with millions of people, many of them rural women and children, affected. At the peak of the lean season in August to September 2016, Northern Bahr el Ghazal had 72% of its population facing crisis and emergency[1] level. It should also be noted that Northern Bahr el Ghazal’s food security indicators continue to be alarming with 62% of the population being severely food insecure (phase 3,4,5) by the peak of the lean season (July)[2]. In January 2017, the Sudd Institute, with generous support from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, explored the proximal risk factors undermining food security resilience and triggering or perpetuating emergency level vulnerabilities in the former states of Warrap and Northern Bahr el Ghazal. Examining 6 major assumptions using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools to draw important information from rural households, the results are instructive and in direction of our expectation. They provide insights into appropriate response options for combating food security vulnerability in the region that is nearly sliding into famine. We outline the key results as follows.
Date of Publication
30/09/2020

WHO Country Cooperation Strategy

Year of Publication
2014
Document Publisher/Creator
WHO
Topic
NGO associated?
Summary
South Sudan has some of the worst health outcome indicators globally, in spite of modest
improvements over the last five years. Maternal mortality ratio has stagnated at 2054 per
100 000. Mortality rate for infants and children under five years declined from 102 and 135
in 2006 to 75 and 104 in 2012 per 1000 live births respectively. The significant disparity in
health status across socio-demographic factors and geographical location is well
documented.
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