Health

Maternal and child health service delivery in conflict-affected settings: A case study example from Upper Nile and Unity states, South Sudan

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Samira Sami, Augustino Ting Mayai and Et al
Institution/organisation
BMC
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-020-00272-2
Summary
Background: Decades of war left the Republic of South Sudan with a fragile health system that has remained deprived of resources since the country’s independence. The authors describe the coverage of interventions for women’s and children’s health in Upper Nile and Unity states, and explore factors that affected service provision during a protracted conflict.

Methods: The authors conducted a case study using a desk review of publicly available literature since 2013 and a secondary analysis of intervention coverage and conflict-related events from 2010 to 2017. During June through September 2018, they conducted 26 qualitative interviews with technical leads and 9 focus groups among health workers working in women and children’s health in Juba, Malakal, and Bentiu.

Results: Coverage for antenatal care, institutional delivery, and childhood vaccines were low prior to the escalation of conflict in 2013, and the limited data indicate that coverage remained low through 2017. Key factors that determined the delivery of services for women and children in the study sites were government leadership, coordination of development and humanitarian efforts, and human resource capacity. Participants felt that national and local health officials had a limited role in the delivery of services, and financial tracking data showed that funding stagnated or declined for humanitarian health and development programming during 2013–2014. Although health services were concentrated in camp settings, the availability of healthcare providers was negatively impacted by the protracted nature of the conflict and insecurity in the region.

Conclusions: Health care for women and children should be prioritized during acute and protracted periods of conflict by strengthening surveillance systems, coordinating short and long term activities among humanitarian and development organizations, and building the capacity of national and local government officials to ensure sustainability
Date of Publication
07/09/2020

Disability in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2018
Document Publisher/Creator
Brigitte Rohwerder
Institution/organisation
K4D (Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development)
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/13617
Summary
Decades of conflict in South Sudan, pre and post-independence in 2011, poverty and poor access to services have increased the rate of disability and rendered people with disabilities more marginalised and excluded as a result of the numerous attitudinal, environmental, and institutional barriers they face, and the lack of concerted efforts to include them. This rapid review identifies the available evidence on the experiences of people with disabilities living in South Sudan. There are still numerous evidence gaps in relation to the experiences of people with disabilities living in South Sudan as very little research has looked at disability in South Sudan and the available evidence base is extremely limited. Much of the available information focuses on Juba rather than the rest of the country. Further research with people with different types of disabilities, and in different areas of South Sudan is needed to more fully understand the experiences of people with disabilities living on South Sudan, the barriers and challenges they face, and how they and their families have responded to them.
Attachment
Date of Publication
08/09/2020

Coping mechanisms in South Sudan in relation to different types of shock

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
WILLIAM AVIS
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/coping-mechanisms-in-south-sudan-in-relation-to-different-types-of-shock/
Summary
This rapid evidence review provides an assessment of negative and positive coping mechanisms of different groups (based on wealth (below the poverty line/elites), gender, age, (dis)abilities, geographies (rural/urban), and ethnicity of people in South Sudan in relation to different types of shock. It draws predominantly on a range of grey literature from multinational and bilateral institutionsas well as non-government organisations (NGOs) and think tanks. The report highlights that coping strategies are varied and multifaceted, they are a product of the vulnerability of particular individuals, households and communities and are the product of responses to shocks and stressors. These shocks(?) may be acute or chronic. It is also important to note that coping strategies in the South Sudanese context have often been developed in response to food insecurity, climatic change and conflict and that new shocks may undermine these existing strategies, necessitate evolution of these or the adoption of new strategies. It is also important to note that these may have both negative and positive impacts that may differ over short, medium and long term time horizons.
Date of Publication
11/09/2020

The Secondary Impacts of COVID-19 on Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Tal Rafaeli and Geraldine Hutchinson
Institution/organisation
K4D (Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development)
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/15408
Summary
This rapid review focuses on identifying evidence on the secondary impacts of COVID-19 on women and girls in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It aims to enable a greater understanding of the unique circumstances of women and girls in the region, which could assist with the provision of effective support throughout the COVID-19 crisis and its aftermath. Guided by available evidence, the review explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women and girls in SSA across various issues. These include some of the following – girls’ education, social protection, unintended pregnancies, access to health services, poverty, livelihood, land rights, women’s and girls’ informal employment, food security and nutrition, female health workforce, and access to WASH. The review touches upon, but does not thoroughly investigates the following topics as they are considered in other reviews - Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG), Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH), girls’ and women’s rights, child marriage, harmful social norms, and women’s political participation, leadership and empowerment. Despite the limited data, the review found that based on emerging evidence and lessons from past health crises, there is strong evidence to suggest that women and girls in SSA will suffer from extreme and multifaceted negative secondary impact as a result of the COVID-19 crisis. Some of which may include higher poverty rates, increase in unplanned pregnancies, a surge in school dropout rates and child labour of adolescent girls, loss of income and reduced financial empowerment, increased household work, reduced access to healthcare and WASH alongside increased maternal deaths, and greater food insecurity and malnutrition.
Date of Publication
15/09/2020

Using livelihoods to support primary health care for South Sudanese refugees in Kiryandongo, Uganda

Year of Publication
2019
Institution/organisation
South Sudan Medical Journal (SSMJ)
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
http://www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com/archive/may-2019/using-livelihoods-to-support-primary-health-care-for-south-sudanese-refugees-in-kiryandongo-uganda.html
Summary
Renewed conflict in South Sudan has displaced 2.3 million people outside the country, of whom 789,098 (35%) have taken refuge in neighbouring Uganda. Eighty-two percent of South Sudanese refugees are women and children. With increasing barriers to operating within the country due to ongoing instability, some organisations supporting primary health care in South Sudan have also turned to exploring how South Sudanese refugees in neighbouring countries can be assisted.
Attachment
Date of Publication
05/10/2020

EPIDEMICS IN THE AFRICAN RED SEA REGION: A HISTORY OF UNEVEN DISEASE EXPOSURE

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Dr. Steven Serels
Institution/organisation
The Rift Valley Institute
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://riftvalley.net/publication/epidemics-african-red-sea-region-history-uneven-disease-exposure
Summary
The sustained movement of people, goods and ideas across the African Red Sea Region has been and continues to be so intense that it binds together communities throughout the region in a unified multifaceted socio-economic system that transcends ethnic, linguistic and political divides.

Where people went, viruses, bacteria and parasites followed. As a result, this region—comprised of present-day Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Djibouti and Somaliland—should be treated as a single disease environment.

This report examines the history of epidemic disease in this region in order to shed light on the current COVID-19 pandemic and its likely course. Rather than attempt to be comprehensive, this study focuses on three diseases that have caused at least one serious regional epidemic over the past two hundred years: Cholera, smallpox and syphilis.

The courses of these epidemics have been shaped by political violence and structural poverty. These two forces combined have led to an intensification of human migration across the region and to the growth of cities, creating new patterns of disease transmission and potential nodes of infection.

Over the last two centuries, the regional disease burden has shifted. Previously, risk was shared across various segments of society. At present, however, there are new social classes that are uniquely exposed to contagious infectious diseases, including refugees and internally displaced people living in camps and settlements, and the urban poor.

This uneven disease exposure will likely structure the course of the current COVID-19 pandemic. High-risk groups also tend to suffer from malnutrition or undernutrition and other previously under-control diseases rendering them even more vulnerable as COVID-19 spreads through the region.

Date of Publication
12/10/2020