Gender

A Rapid Gender Analysis on COVID-19

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
UN Women, MoGCSW, CEPO, and Et al
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/rapid_gender_analysis_on_covid-19-south_sudan.pdf
Summary
South Sudan is a country with already pre-existing inequalities, gender norms and perceptions of who a man and woman is. The experiences of women and girls in South Sudan are starkly different to that of men and boys and the civil war, poverty and societal norms in the country has put women and girls at a disadvantage to seek out a livelihood, good healthcare, education etc. than their male counterparts.
The COVID-19 outbreak in South Sudan has struck an already vulnerable country with pre-existing differences and has further exacerbated these differences between women, men, girls and boys. For example, women and girls who make up the majority of frontline health workers, carers at home, community volunteers and mobilisers stand to be overwhelmed with more health and domestic responsibilities with the advent of COVID-19.
The restrictions on movement places a higher risk on women to experience Gender Based Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, because women are confined in their homes or camps with abusers. Therefore it is
imperative that the national response plan on COVID-19 is grounded in a strong knowledge of gender dynamics, gender relations, sex and age disaggregated data that takes into account the differing experiences of all vulnerable groups (IDP’s women and children, disabled women, women and children in refugee camps), the gendered roles, needs, responsibilities and dynamics.
Due to the outbreak of COVID-19, Ministry of Gender, Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Community Empowerment for Progress (CEPO) and Rural Women for Development South Sudan (RWDSS) conducted a rapid gender analysis to find out how COVID-19 affects Women, Men, Girls and Boys and to identify their different needs which seek out a more informed gender response.
The rapid gender analysis found out that there were challenges based on gender differences in how W, M, G and B’s experienced the restrictions imposed by the Government of South Sudan to prevent the spread of COVID-19, in how they accessed information, in how labor was divided in households, in how they received support to address GBV, in how they accessed an already strained healthcare system, in how they accessed WASH facilities and in how they were affected by a decrease in livelihood activities etc. The rapid gender analysis has also incorporated pre-existing data from secondary sources to inform the change that COVID-19 has brought onto communities in South Sudan.
Date of Publication
29/09/2020

Climate Change and Gender in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2018
Document Publisher/Creator
Nyathon Hoth Mai, Jok Madut Jok and Nhial Tiitmamer
Institution/organisation
The Sudd Institute
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.suddinstitute.org/publications/show/5b76af4421f52
Summary
Climate change poses global risks. These risks adversely affect women in developing countries because of their little capacity to adapt. Previous studies show that women are more vulnerable to climate change than men for a variety of reasons, including illiteracy, low socioeconomic skills, inadequate access to assets, and social isolation, among others. Thus, if empowered, women can contribute significantly to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Limited understanding exists on climate change gender impact disparity in South Sudan. Using literature and empirical data, we find that in South Sudan: Women are at the lower rung of social hierarchy, which produces imbalances that highly expose them to climate change disasters; Women have less resilience assets, rely more on natural resources, have high rate of illiteracy, low skills and low access to professional employment, which make them more vulnerable to climate change calamities than men, and Households headed by females are more vulnerable to disasters such as famine.
Date of Publication
30/09/2020

A Strategy for Achieving Gender Equality in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2014
Document Publisher/Creator
Jane Kani Edward
Institution/organisation
The Sudd Institute
Topic
NGO associated?
Summary
This study seeks to examine how structural factors, customary laws and traditional practices, and
economic hardships shape women’s status and hinder their effective participation in leadership
positions in South Sudan. By doing so, the study identifies some of the socio-cultural, economic,
legal, educational and political conditions, which lead to gender inequality in South Sudan. It
proposes strategies for addressing gender disparities in many aspects of South Sudanese society
for the betterment of women’s condition, and achievement of gender equality in South Sudan.
During the course of this study various research approaches were utilized for data collection.
These include the review of relevant existing literature, government documents and policy
frameworks to identify gaps and areas of concerns. One-on-one interviews were conducted with
selected government officials, policy makers and ordinary South Sudanese females and males to
understand their experiences and perspectives on issues related to women and gender in South
Sudan. In addition to interviews, observation and participant observation methods were used
during my visits to public schools, Juba Teaching hospital, the University of Juba, market places,
and social gatherings.
Attachment

Violence against adolescent girls: Trends and lessons for East Africa

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
CARE AND ET AL
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/violence-against-adolescent-girls-trends-and-lessons-for-east-africa/
Summary
Adolescence is a crucial and defining stage in a girl’s life.However, girls around the world too often face unique risksof gender discrimination and gender-based violence (GBV),including sexual violence, human trafficking, forced marriage and sexual exploitation and abuse. This is particularly the case in humanitarian settings, where girls’ already-limited access to vital services and family and peer support networks
are disrupted by crises and displacement. Despite this, humanitarian programmes and policies do not adequately
address adolescent girls’ needs. Caught between childhood and adulthood, these girls are often not able or willing to access services designed for adult women or young girls.
Adolescent girls face intersecting risks of violence due to their relative lack of power because of both their gender, and their status as children or young people in a world dominated by men. GBV against adolescent girls is rooted in systemic gender inequality, which underpins violence and leads to girls experiencing violence and harmful social norms and practices (like child, early, and forced marriage) at higher rates than their
male counterparts. Harmful social norms can also compound girls’ experience of violence, as some girls are considered “defiled” or “ruined” after rape.
This brief highlights research that examines the unique experience of adolescent girls by specifically exploring the types of gender-based violence and the drivers of this violence affecting this group within the context of South Sudan, where women and girls experience high levels of gender inequality and subordination. Key findings from this mixed-methods research can inform policymakers, UN agencies and donors as they identify and support programs that will effectively prevent and respond to violence against adolescent girls in conflict and
humanitarian settings.
Date of Publication
04/09/2020

Working to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals Through Enhancing Women’s Access to Land in Post Conflict Context: The Case of Wau State in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
DANILO ANTONIO AND ET AL.
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/working-to-achieve-sustainable-development-goals-through-enhancing-womens-access-to-land-in-post-conflict-context-the-case-of-wau-state-in-south-sudan/
Summary
Land governance in South Sudan is not only central to nation building, but also a major contributor to conflicts, poverty and under development in the post conflict context. To reinforce the crucial role of land rights and the importance of gender equality in access of the rights, the Sustainable Development Goals indicators 1.4.2; 5.a.1 and 5.a.2 monitors the progress of security of land and property rights for both men and women and countries’ legal framework ability to guarantee women’s equal rights to land. The crisis in South Sudan has led to an increase in land-related disputes. Women’s housing, land and property rights are the most affected which significantly increases their vulnerability. Supporting displaced women to change their lives through land governance is significant in securing economic independence toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

Referring to the case of Wau county the paper highlights efforts undertaken to enhance women’s access to land to consolidate peace in South Sudan through improving awareness on women’s rights to land, enhancing institutional capacities from the local to national levels and supporting the land policy formulation process with focus on strengthening the gender perspectives. The paper explores implementation of innovative approaches in fit-for-purpose land administration to enhance women’s access to land and entrenching of gender equality in the development of land policy and land administration practices. With the implementation of the peace agreement, it is recognized that upholding and securing women’s rights to land is crucial in facilitating resettlement, reducing recurrence of conflict and contributing to sustainable peace and stability for better livelihoods envisioned in the Sustainable Development Goals.
Date of Publication
10/09/2020

Interventions to Reduce Forced Marriage

Year of Publication
2019
Document Publisher/Creator
Iffat Idris
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://gsdrc.org/publications/interventions-to-reduce-forced-marriage/
Summary
This review drew largely on academic papers as well as reports by international development organisations. Evidence and hence lessons on how to combat forced marriage are limited and sometimes contradictory. Overall, the literature points to a number of approaches that can be effective, notably: empowerment of girls; community approaches to change social norms and attitudes on child marriage, and economic incentives (for girls and families); and, alternative opportunities (notably education, and income generation). Legislative approaches appear to be the least effective in combating child, early and forced marriage. However, different approaches need to be implemented together in order to bring about sustained change.
Date of Publication
28/09/2020

Improving Gender Equality Quota Implementation in Post-conflict South Sudan

Year of Publication
2018
Document Publisher/Creator
Augustino T. Mayai
Institution/organisation
The Sudd Institute
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.suddinstitute.org/publications/show/5bf29ea2840a4
Summary
In 2005, South Sudan adopted a minimum of 25 percent women representation quota in its interim constitution. Following the independence, this quota was maintained, with the Transitional Constitution devoting three clauses to this important policy. In 2013, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), the governing party, proposed raising this quota to increase women’s participation in public life. In the recently signed peace agreement, known as the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCSS), this long propagated quota increase was implemented—stipulated as 35 percent. Article 1(1.12.2) and Article 5(1.1) of the R-ARCSS guarantee 35 percent participation of women in the Executive and in the Transitional Justice Institutions. Moreover, Article 1(1.4.4) states that the “[provisions] of the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan and ARCSS on participation of women (35%) in the Executive shall be observed.”
To help foster a better understanding on how South Sudan has been grappling with the issue of gender inequality in the last few years, this weekly review highlights the experience of implementing pro-gender parity statutes and policies. After exploring the gaps between the ideals and practice, as far as the implementation is concerned, the review suggests what could be done to realize the fundamental objectives of these policy commitments, especially as the country moves to restore stability. Thus, of importance are strategies through which the newly introduced quota system, the 35 percent, can be implemented.
Date of Publication
30/09/2020

The Role of Women in Peace-Building in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2015
Document Publisher/Creator
Nyathon James Hoth Mai
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.suddinstitute.org/publications/show/the-role-of-women-in-peace-building-in-south-sudan
Summary
Grounded in the prevalent under-representation of women in peace-building processes, this brief explores why women’s role in peace-building is critical more generally and particularly in South Sudan. Second, the brief examines the opportunities the recent Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCISS) offers women in the upcoming peace-building efforts. Third, it assesses the challenges that hinder the effective participation of women in peace-building. Lastly, it proposes recommendations that may help address this persistent underutilization of women’s vast skills to support durable peace in South Sudan.



The paper argues that women’s role in peace-building is essential. This is because 1) South Sudanese women have played instrumental roles in resolving past conflicts, which gives them experiences and skills that are crucial in the current peace-building process, 2) women’s activities in peace-building support healing and reconciliation efforts, for women are known for bridging conflicted related divides, 3) war impacts on women quite differently, and as such, their needs and peace-building priorities are different from those of men; and 4) it is a constitutional right and an international obligation that women participate in peace-building activities.
The current peace-building phase in South Sudan offers an opportunity for promoting gender equity, advancing the position of women in the society, mainstreaming women’s perspectives in all the pillars of peace-building and increasing their participation in leadership. This could be done through revision of and recommitment to laws and policies to address historical inequalities and root causes of conflict. However, the patriarchal nature of the South Sudanese society and the associated customary laws, the background on which peace-building works are to be executed, has in the past hindered (may still hinder) women’s participation in public life. These factors are exacerbated by the underlying lack of political will, limited funding, ethnic politics, weak institutions, and the high illiteracy rate among women. Further, these factors could be aggravated by the current move to militarize the government, evident by recent appointments of states’ caretaker governors. While some of these issues are associated with the long-term problems of underdevelopment that South Sudan faces, any meaningful change requires immediate progress on all fronts. It remains to be seen what impact the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU) will make towards improving gender equity in building sustainable yet inclusive peace.
There is need for gender stratified intensification and tailoring of capacity building efforts, provision of more funding to improve to support women’s role in public life, implementation of the 25% affirmative action across the board, and mainstreaming gender perspectives in all sectors of South Sudan. These initiatives may promote women’s greater participation in peace-building processes, hence sustainable peace.
Date of Publication
08/10/2020

The Secondary Impacts of COVID-19 on Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Tal Rafaeli and Geraldine Hutchinson
Institution/organisation
K4D (Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development)
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/15408
Summary
This rapid review focuses on identifying evidence on the secondary impacts of COVID-19 on women and girls in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It aims to enable a greater understanding of the unique circumstances of women and girls in the region, which could assist with the provision of effective support throughout the COVID-19 crisis and its aftermath. Guided by available evidence, the review explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women and girls in SSA across various issues. These include some of the following – girls’ education, social protection, unintended pregnancies, access to health services, poverty, livelihood, land rights, women’s and girls’ informal employment, food security and nutrition, female health workforce, and access to WASH. The review touches upon, but does not thoroughly investigates the following topics as they are considered in other reviews - Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG), Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH), girls’ and women’s rights, child marriage, harmful social norms, and women’s political participation, leadership and empowerment. Despite the limited data, the review found that based on emerging evidence and lessons from past health crises, there is strong evidence to suggest that women and girls in SSA will suffer from extreme and multifaceted negative secondary impact as a result of the COVID-19 crisis. Some of which may include higher poverty rates, increase in unplanned pregnancies, a surge in school dropout rates and child labour of adolescent girls, loss of income and reduced financial empowerment, increased household work, reduced access to healthcare and WASH alongside increased maternal deaths, and greater food insecurity and malnutrition.
Date of Publication
08/09/2020