Gender

Gender as a causal factor in conflict

Year of Publication
2019
Document Publisher/Creator
Jenny Birchall
Institution/organisation
K4D (Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development)
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/14393
Summary
This rapid review synthesises evidence on gender as a causal factor in different inter and intra state conflicts. It focuses on evidence from the year 2000 onwards, identifying specific case examples and describing how gender acted as a causal factor in each case. This may include, for example, the influence of the impact of ‘thwarted masculinities’, gender based violence (GBV) as a driver, or the influence of hegemonic masculinity in motivations for joining armed groups. The case studies presented in the report (Iraq, Northern Uganda, Colombia, Nepal. Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Sudan and South Sudan, and Kosovo) are the best evidenced in the literature identified to demonstrate the links between gender norms and conflict, and the ways that gender drivers are linked with causal factors.
Date of Publication
09/09/2020

Nowhere to go: disclosure and help seeking behaviors for survivors of violence against women and girls in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Maureen Murphy
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/nowhere-to-go-disclosure-and-help-seeking-behaviors-for-survivors-of-violence-against-women-and-girls-in-south-sudan/
Summary
Despite high rates of violence against women and girls in conflict and humanitarian contexts, many survivors do not tell anyone about their experience or seek help from support services (e.g. health, legal, psychosocial support, police).

This paper examines disclosure and help seeking behaviours of survivors of non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) among women and girls aged 15–64 from three sites in South Sudan. It seeks to understand how exposure to armed conflict is associated with disclosure and help seeking practices.

For NPSV, respondents for whom an incident of sexual violence occurred during conflict had twice the odds of telling someone about their experience (aOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3–3.7; p < 0.01) and three times the odds of seeking help (aOR: 3.1; 95%CI: 1.7–5.9, p < .001), compared to respondents for whom the incident of violence did not occur during conflict. Age, the identity of the perpetrator, working status of the woman, poverty and location also affected disclosure and help seeking behaviours for survivors of NPSV. For IPV, exposure to conflict increased the odds a respondent would tell someone about her experience (aOR 1.7; 95%CI 1.2–2.5; p < .01), but was not associated with seeking support services. The severity of IPV affected both disclosure and help seeking behaviours, with the odds of disclosing IPV increasing if the respondent experienced both physical and sexual IPV (compared to only sexual violence), had been injured, thought their well-being was affected, was afraid of their partner, or was controlled by their partner. However, not all these factors were subsequently associated with help seeking behaviours for survivors of IPV and respondents who reported they were sometimes afraid of their partner had reduced odds of seeking help, compared to those who were never afraid of their partners.

These findings are important as, prior to this analysis, it was unclear how experiencing conflict-related VAWG would influence disclosure and help seeking. Given the findings of this paper, it is important that the international community consider how to reduce barriers to reporting and help seeking for non-conflict-related forms of violence in these settings.

Attachment
Date of Publication
16/09/2020

A Rapid Gender Analysis on COVID-19

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
UN Women, MoGCSW, CEPO, and Et al
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/rapid_gender_analysis_on_covid-19-south_sudan.pdf
Summary
South Sudan is a country with already pre-existing inequalities, gender norms and perceptions of who a man and woman is. The experiences of women and girls in South Sudan are starkly different to that of men and boys and the civil war, poverty and societal norms in the country has put women and girls at a disadvantage to seek out a livelihood, good healthcare, education etc. than their male counterparts.
The COVID-19 outbreak in South Sudan has struck an already vulnerable country with pre-existing differences and has further exacerbated these differences between women, men, girls and boys. For example, women and girls who make up the majority of frontline health workers, carers at home, community volunteers and mobilisers stand to be overwhelmed with more health and domestic responsibilities with the advent of COVID-19.
The restrictions on movement places a higher risk on women to experience Gender Based Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, because women are confined in their homes or camps with abusers. Therefore it is
imperative that the national response plan on COVID-19 is grounded in a strong knowledge of gender dynamics, gender relations, sex and age disaggregated data that takes into account the differing experiences of all vulnerable groups (IDP’s women and children, disabled women, women and children in refugee camps), the gendered roles, needs, responsibilities and dynamics.
Due to the outbreak of COVID-19, Ministry of Gender, Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Community Empowerment for Progress (CEPO) and Rural Women for Development South Sudan (RWDSS) conducted a rapid gender analysis to find out how COVID-19 affects Women, Men, Girls and Boys and to identify their different needs which seek out a more informed gender response.
The rapid gender analysis found out that there were challenges based on gender differences in how W, M, G and B’s experienced the restrictions imposed by the Government of South Sudan to prevent the spread of COVID-19, in how they accessed information, in how labor was divided in households, in how they received support to address GBV, in how they accessed an already strained healthcare system, in how they accessed WASH facilities and in how they were affected by a decrease in livelihood activities etc. The rapid gender analysis has also incorporated pre-existing data from secondary sources to inform the change that COVID-19 has brought onto communities in South Sudan.
Date of Publication
29/09/2020

Climate Change and Gender in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2018
Document Publisher/Creator
Nyathon Hoth Mai, Jok Madut Jok and Nhial Tiitmamer
Institution/organisation
The Sudd Institute
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.suddinstitute.org/publications/show/5b76af4421f52
Summary
Climate change poses global risks. These risks adversely affect women in developing countries because of their little capacity to adapt. Previous studies show that women are more vulnerable to climate change than men for a variety of reasons, including illiteracy, low socioeconomic skills, inadequate access to assets, and social isolation, among others. Thus, if empowered, women can contribute significantly to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Limited understanding exists on climate change gender impact disparity in South Sudan. Using literature and empirical data, we find that in South Sudan: Women are at the lower rung of social hierarchy, which produces imbalances that highly expose them to climate change disasters; Women have less resilience assets, rely more on natural resources, have high rate of illiteracy, low skills and low access to professional employment, which make them more vulnerable to climate change calamities than men, and Households headed by females are more vulnerable to disasters such as famine.
Date of Publication
30/09/2020

“This Old Man Can Feed Us, You Will Marry Him” Child and Forced Marriage in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2013
Document Publisher/Creator
Human Rights Watch
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/southSudan0313_forinsertWebVersion_0.pdf
Summary
This report examines child and forced marriage in South Sudan. The report suggests that child marriage has a significant negative impact on women and girl’s realization of key human rights, including their rights to health and education, physical integrity and the right to marry only when they are able and willing to give their free consent.
Date of Publication
06/01/2021

Enhancing people’s resilience in Northern Bahr el Ghazal, South Sudan

Year of Publication
2021
Document Publisher/Creator
SAFERWORLD
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/enhancing-peoples-resilience-in-northern-bahr-el-ghazal-south-sudan/
Summary
This brief provides a context update about the current situation in Northern Bahr el Ghazal –a county in northern South Sudan.

The authors present safety and security challenges identified by communities, authorities and civil society such as food insecurity, gender-based violence, land and border disputes, weak justice systems and a lack of security services to turn to.

They also provide recommendations for how best to address these challenges for all levels of government and communities to consider.
Attachment
Date of Publication
09/02/2021

A Strategy for Achieving Gender Equality in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2014
Document Publisher/Creator
Jane Kani Edward
Institution/organisation
The Sudd Institute
Topic
NGO associated?
Summary
This study seeks to examine how structural factors, customary laws and traditional practices, and
economic hardships shape women’s status and hinder their effective participation in leadership
positions in South Sudan. By doing so, the study identifies some of the socio-cultural, economic,
legal, educational and political conditions, which lead to gender inequality in South Sudan. It
proposes strategies for addressing gender disparities in many aspects of South Sudanese society
for the betterment of women’s condition, and achievement of gender equality in South Sudan.
During the course of this study various research approaches were utilized for data collection.
These include the review of relevant existing literature, government documents and policy
frameworks to identify gaps and areas of concerns. One-on-one interviews were conducted with
selected government officials, policy makers and ordinary South Sudanese females and males to
understand their experiences and perspectives on issues related to women and gender in South
Sudan. In addition to interviews, observation and participant observation methods were used
during my visits to public schools, Juba Teaching hospital, the University of Juba, market places,
and social gatherings.
Attachment

Violence against adolescent girls: Trends and lessons for East Africa

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
CARE AND ET AL
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/violence-against-adolescent-girls-trends-and-lessons-for-east-africa/
Summary
Adolescence is a crucial and defining stage in a girl’s life.However, girls around the world too often face unique risksof gender discrimination and gender-based violence (GBV),including sexual violence, human trafficking, forced marriage and sexual exploitation and abuse. This is particularly the case in humanitarian settings, where girls’ already-limited access to vital services and family and peer support networks
are disrupted by crises and displacement. Despite this, humanitarian programmes and policies do not adequately
address adolescent girls’ needs. Caught between childhood and adulthood, these girls are often not able or willing to access services designed for adult women or young girls.
Adolescent girls face intersecting risks of violence due to their relative lack of power because of both their gender, and their status as children or young people in a world dominated by men. GBV against adolescent girls is rooted in systemic gender inequality, which underpins violence and leads to girls experiencing violence and harmful social norms and practices (like child, early, and forced marriage) at higher rates than their
male counterparts. Harmful social norms can also compound girls’ experience of violence, as some girls are considered “defiled” or “ruined” after rape.
This brief highlights research that examines the unique experience of adolescent girls by specifically exploring the types of gender-based violence and the drivers of this violence affecting this group within the context of South Sudan, where women and girls experience high levels of gender inequality and subordination. Key findings from this mixed-methods research can inform policymakers, UN agencies and donors as they identify and support programs that will effectively prevent and respond to violence against adolescent girls in conflict and
humanitarian settings.
Date of Publication
04/09/2020

Working to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals Through Enhancing Women’s Access to Land in Post Conflict Context: The Case of Wau State in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
DANILO ANTONIO AND ET AL.
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/working-to-achieve-sustainable-development-goals-through-enhancing-womens-access-to-land-in-post-conflict-context-the-case-of-wau-state-in-south-sudan/
Summary
Land governance in South Sudan is not only central to nation building, but also a major contributor to conflicts, poverty and under development in the post conflict context. To reinforce the crucial role of land rights and the importance of gender equality in access of the rights, the Sustainable Development Goals indicators 1.4.2; 5.a.1 and 5.a.2 monitors the progress of security of land and property rights for both men and women and countries’ legal framework ability to guarantee women’s equal rights to land. The crisis in South Sudan has led to an increase in land-related disputes. Women’s housing, land and property rights are the most affected which significantly increases their vulnerability. Supporting displaced women to change their lives through land governance is significant in securing economic independence toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

Referring to the case of Wau county the paper highlights efforts undertaken to enhance women’s access to land to consolidate peace in South Sudan through improving awareness on women’s rights to land, enhancing institutional capacities from the local to national levels and supporting the land policy formulation process with focus on strengthening the gender perspectives. The paper explores implementation of innovative approaches in fit-for-purpose land administration to enhance women’s access to land and entrenching of gender equality in the development of land policy and land administration practices. With the implementation of the peace agreement, it is recognized that upholding and securing women’s rights to land is crucial in facilitating resettlement, reducing recurrence of conflict and contributing to sustainable peace and stability for better livelihoods envisioned in the Sustainable Development Goals.
Date of Publication
10/09/2020

Interventions to Reduce Forced Marriage

Year of Publication
2019
Document Publisher/Creator
Iffat Idris
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://gsdrc.org/publications/interventions-to-reduce-forced-marriage/
Summary
This review drew largely on academic papers as well as reports by international development organisations. Evidence and hence lessons on how to combat forced marriage are limited and sometimes contradictory. Overall, the literature points to a number of approaches that can be effective, notably: empowerment of girls; community approaches to change social norms and attitudes on child marriage, and economic incentives (for girls and families); and, alternative opportunities (notably education, and income generation). Legislative approaches appear to be the least effective in combating child, early and forced marriage. However, different approaches need to be implemented together in order to bring about sustained change.
Date of Publication
28/09/2020