Agriculture

Livestock and livelihoods in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2018
Document Publisher/Creator
Andy Catley
Institution/organisation
K4D (Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development)
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/14228
Summary
In South Sudan agro-pastoralism is the main livelihood system in rural areas. Although agro-pastoralism involves both livestock rearing and crop production, a household’s financial capital is held in the form of livestock. Livestock also supply milk and other foods, and are sold to purchase cereals for food and meet other domestic needs. Poorer households aim to build their herds; this is the key and economically logical strategy for building their financial capital. Due to the seasonality of food production, milk is a critical food at specific times of year, when other foods e.g. cereals, are not readily available. Milk is an especially important food for young children, and pregnant and lactating mothers. Livestock is also important in South Sudan’s pastoralist and agrarian areas.
In addition to the role of livestock as financial capital and food, traditional social support systems in South Sudan are based on livestock transactions. In particular, the use of livestock as bridewealth creates social networks, with reciprocal assistance in times of hardship. An individual’s vulnerability depends heavily on their social connectedness, and social connections are created and maintained through livestock exchanges. This critical role of livestock in South Sudan is difficult to quantify, but has huge significance in communities facing crises such as protracted conflict and market failures. Further information on the impact of conflict on livestock is provided in recent the K4D report Livestock and conflict in South Sudan (Idris, 2018).
Date of Publication
08/09/2020

‘You Can Now Get Engaged’ Meanings of cassava among the Pojulu of South Sudan

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
Luga Aquila
Institution/organisation
The Rift Valley Institute
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
http://riftvalley.net/sites/default/files/publication-documents/You%20Can%20Now%20Get%20Engaged%20by%20Luga%20Aquila%20-%20RVI%20X-Border%20Project%20%282020%29.pdf
Summary
The project examines the changing tastes for food in South Sudan in the context of the country’s economic transition and place in the regional, cross-border economy of grain. In this piece, Luga Aquila explores the history of cassava among the Pojulu in Central Equatoria. He explains how one local cassava variety called yoyoji-yoyoja, which translates as ‘you can now get engaged’, became an important means of bridewealth in the Pojulu community. Later, yoyojiyoyoja lost some of its social value when a new cassava variety called bokolisha was introduced, which has properties that are more suitable for market production.
Luga draws upon his family’s oral history to show how the movement of people and tubers is connected to
changing marriage practices and the organization and redistribution of family wealth.
Date of Publication
09/09/2020

Moving Towards Markets: Cash, Commodification and Conflict in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2019
Document Publisher/Creator
Edward Thomas
Institution/organisation
The Rift Valley Institute
NGO associated?
Source URL
http://riftvalley.net/publication/cash-commodification-and-conflict-south-sudan
Summary
Fifty years ago, most households in South Sudan produced the grain they ate, organizing agricultural labour and distributing small surpluses mostly through kinship and other social networks. Now, the majority of households buy most of their food. This transition from self-sufficiency to market dependence took place during long wars, which transformed or distorted almost every aspect of everyday life. It is a transition that now seems to be irreversible. This report therefore looks at how South Sudan’s subsistence system, which organized the production and distribution of wealth around kinship and social networks, is being replaced by a market economy, and what the consequences of this are for the country and its people.
Date of Publication
10/09/2020

The Role of State in Economic Development: Infant Industry Production in South Sudan

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
CHRISTOPHER ZAMBAKARI
NGO associated?
Source URL
file:///C:/Users/TEMP.SSD000D-NB11787/Downloads/InfantIndustryProductioninSouthSudan_GPPR-2020SpringEdition_Article.pdf
Summary
In this article the author examines the relevance of infant-industry promotion theory to South Sudan’s economic revitalization efforts. As a newly formed state with jurisdiction over people with varied and often conflicting interests, the South Sudanese government will likely experience difficulty developing institutions and procedures that produce an equitable distribution of economic gains across the South Sudanese population. After a brief introduction, Zambakari discusses the role of the state in economic development dating back to the renaissance. He discusses the state and economic development in South Sudan and argues that recent declines in South Sudan’s performance on key human development indicators heighten the urgency of evaluating different strategic options for rebuilding an economy ravaged by civil war. This process will necessarily require careful consideration of the optimal degree of state involvement in designing and implementing these solutions. Infant-industry promotion is one promising approach to leveling the playing field between developing and developed country economies. Lastly, Zambakari presents the case for infant-industry promotion and call for the government to serve an active role in economic development and promotion, an alternative model for development in South Sudan by applying selective economic policies to industries where productive capacities can be developed.
Date of Publication
11/09/2020

Food Crises and COVID‑19: Emerging evidence and implications

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
FAO
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
GlobalNetwork_Technical_Nwww.fightfoodcrises.net/fileadmin/user_upload/fightfoodcrises/doc/ote_Covid19_Food_Crises_Sept_2020.pdf
Summary
An analysis of acute food insecurity and agri‑food systems during COVID‑19 pandemic - Technical note.
Date of Publication
18/09/2020

The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets (SOCO)

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
FAO
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://doi.org/10.4060/cb0665en
Summary
The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2020 (SOCO 2020) aims to discuss policies and mechanisms that promote sustainable outcomes – economic, social and environmental – in agricultural and food markets, both global and domestic. The analysis is organized along the trends and challenges that lie at the heart of global discussions on trade and development. These include the evolution of trade and markets; the emergence of global value chains in food and agriculture; the extent to which smallholder farmers in developing countries participate in value chains and markets; and the transformative impacts of digital technology on markets.

Along these themes, SOCO 2020 discusses policies and institutions that can promote inclusive economic growth and also harness markets to contribute towards the realization of the 2030 Agenda and its Sustainable Development Goals.
Date of Publication
28/09/2020

The militarization of cattle raiding in South Sudan: How a traditional practice became a tool for political violence

Year of Publication
2018
Document Publisher/Creator
Jok Madut Jok
Institution/organisation
The Sudd Institute
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://suddinstitute.org/publications/show/5b0fb91de0973
Summary
Cattle raiding, a longstanding practice among pastoralists in South Sudan, was historically governed by cultural authorities and ritual prohibitions. However, after decades of on-and-off integration into armed forces, raiders are now heavily armed, and military-style attacks claim dozens if not hundreds of lives at a time.
Date of Publication
01/10/2020

Innovative business models for small farmer inclusion

Year of Publication
2020
Document Publisher/Creator
FAO
Institution/organisation
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://doi.org/10.4060/cb0700en
Summary
Farmer participation in agricultural markets is of major importance for rural economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries. This paper discusses market failures and constraints in agriculture in low income countries, focusing on how these failures and constraints affect
small farmers, input sellers and output buyers. It then explores innovative models implemented to address these challenges, including: out-grower schemes; input bundling programmes; decommodification through quality product differentiation; information and communication technologies; distributed ledger technologies; and direct purchasing models. Finally, the paper reviews the existing evidence surrounding these innovative approaches and highlights evidentiary gaps.
Attachment
Date of Publication
06/11/2020

Indigenous Solutions to Food Insecurity: Wild Food Plants of South Sudan

Year of Publication
2017
Document Publisher/Creator
Michael Arensen and OXFAM
NGO associated?
Source URL
https://www.csrf-southsudan.org/repository/indigenous-solutions-food-insecurity-wild-food-plants-south-sudan/
Summary
During times of severe food shortages, alternative sources of food are the only means of survival. When crops fail or are destroyed, markets, houses, livestock and food stores are demolished or stolen, and movement is limited due to conflict, local populations have only two sources of food left; aid and what is locally available in the surrounding environment. The utilization of wild plants, fish and game becomes a primary coping mechanism for people affected by conflict. While the killing of wild game is illegal, and fishing is supported with distributions of tools, knowledge on the role of indigenous wild plants in diets is not well understood. Although vital during times of food shortage, wild plants are also a normal part of diets in South Sudan. Research has found that wild plants are “the nutritional equivalent of- and in some cases are superior to- introduced vegetables and fruits” and their use both diversifies and improves diets.1 Some wild plants are particularly nutritious and could potentially play a significant role in creating a sustainable source of much needed nutrients in South Sudan.

Further some wild plants also hold economic value and are already traded in local, and even international markets. The domestication or sustainable collection of wild plants with agricultural or economic potential could create alternative sources of both income and food. Distribution of food aid is costly, unsustainable and not always a possibility. The potential for developing or promoting a local, sustainable food source should not be ignored. Utilizing and sharing indigenous knowledge on wild plants, including which ones are edible, how to prepare them and which have economic value, could play an important role in supporting communities. The expansion of the use of wild plants is not an immediate solution to the dire food situation currently found in South Sudan, and should not be promoted as such. However, the humanitarian community should not ignore any potential local solutions that exist. The correct utilization of indigenous wild food plants could play a significant role in improving the lives of people suffering due to conflict and food insecurity.
Date of Publication
16/12/2020

Food Price Monitoring and Analysis (FPMA): Monthly Report on Food Price Trends

Year of Publication
2021
Document Publisher/Creator
FAO
Topic
NGO associated?
Source URL
http://newsletters.fao.org/c/115PnnjkFaNezfC9Zq29IqACU
Summary
International prices of maize surged in January amid shrinking global export supplies and large purchases by China (mainland). Prices of wheat and barley also increased significantly, supported by strong import demand. Export prices of rice increased for a second successive month reflecting robust demand from Asian and African buyers, combined with tight supplies in Thailand and Viet Nam, two major exporting countries.
In East Africa, prices of coarse grains generally followed mixed trends in January. In most countries, prices were around or below their year-earlier levels, except in the Sudan and South Sudan, where despite some seasonal declines, they were still at near-record highs, underpinned by insufficient supplies and severe macro-economic difficulties, including continuous and sustained depreciation of the local currencies.
In Central America, despite the ongoing second season harvest, prices of beans increased further in January and were well above their year-earlier levels, especially in Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, reflecting crop losses caused by the two consecutive hurricanes in November 2020.
Attachment
Date of Publication
24/02/2021