South Sudan: First anniversary of Independence Time to Act for Peace and Human Rights Protection

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The Comprehensive Peace Agreement
The civil war in Sudan that has been fought since 1983, arose out of opposition to the Central
Government of Khartoum and its Sudanese armed forces by the Sudan People’s Liberation
Movement and Army (SPLM/A) regarding issues around sharing of resources, political participation
and religious matters. This civil war finally came to an end with the signing of the Comprehensive
Peace Agreement (CPA)1 on 9 January 2005.
After more than 20 years of war, which caused the death of 2.5 million people, the CPA, mediated
by the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) with the assistance of the International
Community, was a set of agreements concerning ceasefire and security arrangements, power and wealth
sharing. It also established a timetable by which Southern Sudan would have a referendum on its
independence and conflict resolutions in the “Three Areas”: Abyei, South Kordofan and Blue Nile.